Linux, Networking, Opensource, Server

smb.conf default

# This is the main Samba configuration file. You should read the
# smb.conf(5) manual page in order to understand the options listed
# here. Samba has a huge number of configurable options (perhaps too
# many!) most of which are not shown in this example
#
# Any line which starts with a ; (semi-colon) or a # (hash) 
# is a comment and is ignored. In this example we will use a #
# for commentry and a ; for parts of the config file that you
# may wish to enable
#
# NOTE: Whenever you modify this file you should run the command "testparm"
# to check that you have not many any basic syntactic errors. 
#
#======================= Global Settings =====================================
[global]

# workgroup = NT-Domain-Name or Workgroup-Name, eg: REDHAT4
   workgroup = MYGROUP

# server string is the equivalent of the NT Description field
   server string = Samba Server

# This option is important for security. It allows you to restrict
# connections to machines which are on your local network. The
# following example restricts access to two C class networks and
# the "loopback" interface. For more examples of the syntax see
# the smb.conf man page
;   hosts allow = 192.168.1. 192.168.2. 127.

# If you want to automatically load your printer list rather
# than setting them up individually then you'll need this
   load printers = yes

# you may wish to override the location of the printcap file
;   printcap name = /etc/printcap

# on SystemV system setting printcap name to lpstat should allow
# you to automatically obtain a printer list from the SystemV spool
# system
;   printcap name = lpstat

# It should not be necessary to specify the print system type unless
# it is non-standard. Currently supported print systems include:
# bsd, sysv, plp, lprng, aix, hpux, qnx
;   printing = bsd

# Uncomment this if you want a guest account, you must add this to /etc/passwd
# otherwise the user "nobody" is used
;  guest account = pcguest

# this tells Samba to use a separate log file for each machine
# that connects
   log file = /usr/local/samba/var/log.%m

# Put a capping on the size of the log files (in Kb).
   max log size = 50

# Security mode. Most people will want user level security. See
# security_level.txt for details.
   security = user

# Use password server option only with security = server
# The argument list may include:
#   password server = My_PDC_Name [My_BDC_Name] [My_Next_BDC_Name]
# or to auto-locate the domain controller/s
#   password server = *
;   password server = <NT-Server-Name>

# Note: Do NOT use the now deprecated option of "domain controller"
# This option is no longer implemented.

# You may wish to use password encryption. Please read
# ENCRYPTION.txt, Win95.txt and WinNT.txt in the Samba documentation.
# Do not enable this option unless you have read those documents
encrypt passwords = yes

# Using the following line enables you to customise your configuration
# on a per machine basis. The %m gets replaced with the netbios name
# of the machine that is connecting
;   include = /usr/local/samba/lib/smb.conf.%m

# Most people will find that this option gives better performance.
# See speed.txt and the manual pages for details
# You may want to add the following on a Linux system:
#         SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192
   socket options = TCP_NODELAY 

# Configure Samba to use multiple interfaces
# If you have multiple network interfaces then you must list them
# here. See the man page for details.
;   interfaces = 192.168.12.2/24 192.168.13.2/24 

# Browser Control Options:
# set local master to no if you don't want Samba to become a master
# browser on your network. Otherwise the normal election rules apply
;   local master = no

# OS Level determines the precedence of this server in master browser
# elections. The default value should be reasonable
;   os level = 33

# Domain Master specifies Samba to be the Domain Master Browser. This
# allows Samba to collate browse lists between subnets. Don't use this
# if you already have a Windows NT domain controller doing this job
;   domain master = yes 

# Preferred Master causes Samba to force a local browser election on startup
# and gives it a slightly higher chance of winning the election
;   preferred master = yes

# Enable this if you want Samba to be a domain logon server for 
# Windows95 workstations. 
;   domain logons = yes

# if you enable domain logons then you may want a per-machine or
# per user logon script
# run a specific logon batch file per workstation (machine)
;   logon script = %m.bat
# run a specific logon batch file per username
;   logon script = %U.bat

# Where to store roving profiles (only for Win95 and WinNT)
#        %L substitutes for this servers netbios name, %U is username
#        You must uncomment the [Profiles] share below
;   logon path = \\%L\Profiles\%U

# Windows Internet Name Serving Support Section:
# WINS Support - Tells the NMBD component of Samba to enable it's WINS Server
;   wins support = yes

# WINS Server - Tells the NMBD components of Samba to be a WINS Client
#	Note: Samba can be either a WINS Server, or a WINS Client, but NOT both
;   wins server = w.x.y.z

# WINS Proxy - Tells Samba to answer name resolution queries on
# behalf of a non WINS capable client, for this to work there must be
# at least one	WINS Server on the network. The default is NO.
;   wins proxy = yes

# DNS Proxy - tells Samba whether or not to try to resolve NetBIOS names
# via DNS nslookups. The built-in default for versions 1.9.17 is yes,
# this has been changed in version 1.9.18 to no.
   dns proxy = no 

#============================ Share Definitions ==============================
[homes]
   comment = Home Directories
   browseable = no
   writable = yes

# Un-comment the following and create the netlogon directory for Domain Logons
; [netlogon]
;   comment = Network Logon Service
;   path = /usr/local/samba/lib/netlogon
;   guest ok = yes
;   writable = no
;   share modes = no

# Un-comment the following to provide a specific roving profile share
# the default is to use the user's home directory
;[Profiles]
;    path = /usr/local/samba/profiles
;    browseable = no
;    guest ok = yes

# NOTE: If you have a BSD-style print system there is no need to 
# specifically define each individual printer
[printers]
   comment = All Printers
   path = /usr/spool/samba
   browseable = no
# Set public = yes to allow user 'guest account' to print
   guest ok = no
   writable = no
   printable = yes

# This one is useful for people to share files
;[tmp]
;   comment = Temporary file space
;   path = /tmp
;   read only = no
;   public = yes

# A publicly accessible directory, but read only, except for people in
# the "staff" group
;[public]
;   comment = Public Stuff
;   path = /home/samba
;   public = yes
;   writable = yes
;   printable = no
;   write list = @staff

# Other examples. 
#
# A private printer, usable only by fred. Spool data will be placed in fred's
# home directory. Note that fred must have write access to the spool directory,
# wherever it is.
;[fredsprn]
;   comment = Fred's Printer
;   valid users = fred
;   path = /homes/fred
;   printer = freds_printer
;   public = no
;   writable = no
;   printable = yes

# A private directory, usable only by fred. Note that fred requires write
# access to the directory.
;[fredsdir]
;   comment = Fred's Service
;   path = /usr/somewhere/private
;   valid users = fred
;   public = no
;   writable = yes
;   printable = no

# a service which has a different directory for each machine that connects
# this allows you to tailor configurations to incoming machines. You could
# also use the %U option to tailor it by user name.
# The %m gets replaced with the machine name that is connecting.
;[pchome]
;  comment = PC Directories
;  path = /usr/pc/%m
;  public = no
;  writable = yes

# A publicly accessible directory, read/write to all users. Note that all files
# created in the directory by users will be owned by the default user, so
# any user with access can delete any other user's files. Obviously this
# directory must be writable by the default user. Another user could of course
# be specified, in which case all files would be owned by that user instead.
;[public]
;   path = /usr/somewhere/else/public
;   public = yes
;   only guest = yes
;   writable = yes
;   printable = no

# The following two entries demonstrate how to share a directory so that two
# users can place files there that will be owned by the specific users. In this
# setup, the directory should be writable by both users and should have the
# sticky bit set on it to prevent abuse. Obviously this could be extended to
# as many users as required.
;[myshare]
;   comment = Mary's and Fred's stuff
;   path = /usr/somewhere/shared
;   valid users = mary fred
;   public = no
;   writable = yes
;   printable = no
;   create mask = 0765
Standard
Cisco, Networking

Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN)

sebelum kita lanjut ke VLAN…gw mo menegaskan lagi tentang collision & broadcast domain

secara default, switch membagi collision domain dan router membagi broadcast domain

 

tapi sekarang di switch PUN bisa menciptakan broadcast domain sendiri….caranya dengan menggunakan / membuat VLAN

 

lalu ente bertanya “gunanya router apa ??”…yah tergantung (tergantung apa yang digantung..!??!?)

 

secara default, host2 dalam 1 VLAN tidak dapat berkomunikasi dengan host2 di VLAN yang berbeda, untuk bisa berkomunikasi dengan vlan yang berbeda….ITULAH GUNANYA ROUTER….

 

Dasar2 VLAN

 

  • Penambahan, Pemindahan, dan Perubahan network dilakukan dengan cara mengkonfigurasi sebuah port ke VLAN yang sesuai…contoh : di kantor lo ada karyawan baru, bagian akutansi…kebetulan komputer kepake semua…so, lo harus beli komputer baru..trus masang kabel LAN/ethernet/RJ45 biar dia bisa konek ke bagian akutansi….dengan VLAN…lo cuma nentuin colokan dari komputer karyawan baru ke switch port berapa yg ada di VLAN akutansi (contoh..lo set komputer2 akutansi VLANnya dari port 1-12)..engga ribet..lebih ter-organisir
  • Secara Default (blum di set/konfigure apa2)…semua port dalam switch berada pada 1 VLAN..yaitu VLAN 1…tapi CISCO merekomendasikan ke VLAN selain 1..karena untuk keperluan administratif (cih..mang sapa luh..wkwkw..kidding)
  • Fleksibilitas dan Skalabilitas, dengan VLAN…lo bisa menentukan seberapa fleksibel kah network lo (lo bisa buat VLAN super gede tapi resiko broadcast strom ada..ato kecil…hanya saja lo bakal repot klo ada penambahan user2 baru…mesti set2 lagi)
  • dengan VLAN, faktor keamanan juga terjaga…karena secara default…user2 dari bagian/departement/VLAN lain ga bisa akses ke VLAN/Departement/bagian kita (kalau dulu kan user/orang bisa colok kabel RJ45/Kabel Lan ke port nganggur yang sembarang juga jadi..trus bisa akses de ke semua orang yg terhubung ke switch yang sama dengan port itu)

VLAN Statis

 

ini yg paling umum….lo buat VLAN untuk departement apa…trus ada user baru…lo alokasikan port yang ada ke port yg menjadi anggota VLAN yang dituju

 

-paling gampang

 

-paling mudah diawasi

 

contoh paling gampang liat gambar diatas..oh iya !!..sebelum lupa…dalam VLAN…user yg mau masuk VLAN yang dituju..IP nya mesti tercakup dalam ip dari VLAN yang dituju….contoh mo masuk sales departement VLAN…ip komputernya mesti 172.16.60.xxx…sesuai dengan ip network yg di set di VLAN sales

 

VLAN Dinamis

 

gampangnya…lo set (nanti) di konfigurasi switch nya…lo mo ngelompokin user di VLAN tertentu BERDASARKAN alamat MAC nya, atau protokolnya, atau bahkan aplikasi2nya

 

-relax…langsung otomatis dimasukin ke VLAN yg tertuju

 

-awalnya doank yg ribet..karena di awal2 konfigurasi nya lo mesti set ini set itu dulu..wkwkkw

 

Admin CISCO menggunakan layanan VLAN Management Policy Server untuk men-setup sebuah database dari alamat2 MAC, yang dapat digunakan untuk pengalamatan dinamis dari VLAN. sebuah database VMPS memetakan alamat dari MAC ke VLAN-VLAN

 

Mengidentifikasikan VLAN-VLAN

 

ketika frame bergerak di sebuah network, switch2 harus dapat mengikuti perubahan dari semua jenis frame yang berbeda, dan memahami apa yang harus dilakukan dengannya sesuai dengan alamat hardware. Dan ingat, frame-frame ditangani secara berbeda sesuai dengan jenis link yang dilaluinya (gw nyontek dari catetan gw ni kata2nya semua dari “ketika….” wkwkwkkw)

 

Access Link (Access Port)

 

jenis link ini hanya bagian dari 1 VLAN dan disebut VLAN native (vlan asli) dari port. Setiap alat yang terhubung ke sebuah access link tidak menyadari keanggotaan VLAN….dia cuma berasumsi bahwa dia adalah bagian dari sebuah broadcast domain…masih bagian dari sebuah router..tapi dia engga tau tentang network fisikal. switch2 menghapus semua informasi VLAN dari frame sebelum dikirim ke sebuah alat access-link. Alat access-link tidak dapat berkomunikasi dengan alat2 di luar VLAN-nya kecuali jika paket itu di-Routed

 

Trunk Link (Trunk Port)

Sebuah Trunk Link adalah sebuah link point-to-point (ibaratnya…lo ke gw , gw ke elo) 100 atau 1000 Mbps antara 2 switch, atau antara Switch dan Router, atau antara Switch ke Server. Link2 ini dapat membawa lalulintas data dari banyak VLAN (dari 1 sampe 1005 VLAN pada satu saat). TRUNKING  = Membuat sebuah Link agar dapat dilewati oleh banyak VLAN ato banyak subnet, biasanya TRUNKING ada pas Switch konek ke Switch juga, ato ketika lo punya server yang berada di 2 broadcast domain trus lo pake Trunking biar ga usa repot2 lewat router lagi. Trunk link dapat membawa beberapa atau semua informasi VLAN memalui link nya, tetapi jika link diantara switch2 itu ga di set jadi Trunk link..maka hanya informasi dari VLAN 1 aja yg dikirim

 

tiap host yang berada disuatu VLAN akan mengirimkan frame yang ada “tag” vlan nya…biar switch tau mau dibawa kemana itu data. gambar diatas adalah struktur tag dari vlan yang di tempel ke frame yang akan di kirim

  • EtherType field – Set to the hexadecimal value of 0×8100. This value is called the tag protocol ID (TPID) value. With the EtherType field set to the TPID value, the switch receiving the frame knows to look for information in the tag control information field. jadi kalau TPID ini ADA di dalam suatu frame….maka tag control-nya akan di liat, ada vlan ID nya ga….
  • 3 bits of user priority – Used by the 802.1p standard, which specifies how to provide expedited transmission of Layer 2 frames. 802.1p itu protocol untuk memprioritaskan data suara (voice vlan)…lebih tepatnya protocol untuk QoS (quality of service) dalam level layer 2 (MAC)
  • 1 bit of Canonical Format Identifier (CFI) – Enables Token Ring (teknologi yang menggunakan token ring) frames to be carried across Ethernet links easily.
  • 12 bits of VLAN ID (VID)VLAN identification numbers; supports up to 4096 VLAN IDs
  • PAD – Packet Assembler/Dis-assembler (buat gabungin frame jadi packet/misahin packet jadi frame…silakan di baca teori OSI Layer)
  • FCS – Frame Check Sequence…buat cek error

METODE2 IDENTIFIKASI VLAN (TRUNKING MODE)

Inter-Switch Link (ISL)

Cuma buat CISCO (proprietary), dan hanya untuk Fast Ethernet (kabel yg biasa kita pake) dan Gigabit Ethernet aja. uda jarang kepake…karena frame2 yang ga ada tag VLAN nya, defaultnya di drop

IEEE 802.1Q

sesuai nama..diciptakan oleh IEEE, digunakan pas lo mo konek switch ke switch yang bukan cisco punya, plus bisa carry vlan berbeda dan ga di drop

DTP (Dynamic Trunking Protocol)

Is a Cisco proprietary protocol. Switches from other vendors do not support DTP. DTP is automatically enabled on a switch port when certain trunking modes are configured on the switch port. jadi klo switchA port ketemu dengan switchB port…cukup salah satu aja dijadiin trunk..yang lawannya otomatis ngikut (kecuali kita config manual…beda lagi, defaultnya auto negotiable)

ebelum kita lanjut ke VLAN…gw mo menegaskan lagi tentang collision & broadcast domain

secara default, switch membagi collision domain dan router membagi broadcast domain

tapi sekarang di switch PUN bisa menciptakan broadcast domain sendiri….caranya dengan menggunakan / membuat VLAN

lalu ente bertanya “gunanya router apa ??”…yah tergantung (tergantung apa yang digantung..!??!?)

secara default, host2 dalam 1 VLAN tidak dapat berkomunikasi dengan host2 di VLAN yang berbeda, untuk bisa berkomunikasi dengan vlan yang berbeda….ITULAH GUNANYA ROUTER….

Dasar2 VLAN

  • Penambahan, Pemindahan, dan Perubahan network dilakukan dengan cara mengkonfigurasi sebuah port ke VLAN yang sesuai…contoh : di kantor lo ada karyawan baru, bagian akutansi…kebetulan komputer kepake semua…so, lo harus beli komputer baru..trus masang kabel LAN/ethernet/RJ45 biar dia bisa konek ke bagian akutansi….dengan VLAN…lo cuma nentuin colokan dari komputer karyawan baru ke switch port berapa yg ada di VLAN akutansi (contoh..lo set komputer2 akutansi VLANnya dari port 1-12)..engga ribet..lebih ter-organisir
  • Secara Default (blum di set/konfigure apa2)…semua port dalam switch berada pada 1 VLAN..yaitu VLAN 1…tapi CISCO merekomendasikan ke VLAN selain 1..karena untuk keperluan administratif (cih..mang sapa luh..wkwkw..kidding)
  • Fleksibilitas dan Skalabilitas, dengan VLAN…lo bisa menentukan seberapa fleksibel kah network lo (lo bisa buat VLAN super gede tapi resiko broadcast strom ada..ato kecil…hanya saja lo bakal repot klo ada penambahan user2 baru…mesti set2 lagi)
  • dengan VLAN, faktor keamanan juga terjaga…karena secara default…user2 dari bagian/departement/VLAN lain ga bisa akses ke VLAN/Departement/bagian kita (kalau dulu kan user/orang bisa colok kabel RJ45/Kabel Lan ke port nganggur yang sembarang juga jadi..trus bisa akses de ke semua orang yg terhubung ke switch yang sama dengan port itu)
Standard